Gypsy occasionally gets in a snippy attitude, and gets this "I'm having the last word!" look to her. This usually mean her head is down, she's circling me, and she eventually comes in for a bite. She's not breaking the skin or anything, but it seems she's definitely try to tell me that's she's the boss of me.
If I notice the behaviour building, I'll warn her against it, but if she comes in for a nip anyway, I do either one of the following.
1. throw her in the bathroom for a 5 minute timeout
2. scruff her and hold her firmly down so can't move.
With either method she expresses her displasure.
With the timeout, it's louder and louder meows.
With the holding her immobile, it's more of a low combination between a meow and yowl, but not a growl. It doesn't sound like she's saying "that hurts!", but more she doesn't like it and doesn't want it to continue.
For time outs, she gets freedom after about 5 minutes, provided she's not still acting up.
For the holding her tight method, she gets released as soon as she's not struggling or yowling.
Gypsy is still a teenager, and she's a very muscular, very active breed.
I don't want to hurt her, but I also need her to know that I'm the momcat in this relationship.